RISHI KANAD 'S LAW OF MOTION :
Before newton discovered laws of motion, Indian scientist and philosopher Kanada (Hindi : कणाद) had given Vaisheshika Sutra (in 600 BCE) which describes relation between forcce and motion etc.
Vaisheshika (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक) is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya (syllogism, inference). The philosophers of this school used to debate on various subjects and try to achieve a conclusion.
The earliest systematic exposition of the Vaisheshika is found in the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra (600 BCE) of Kaṇāda (Ancient Indian Scientist and philosopher) .
As the founder of 'Vaisheshik Darshan', one of six principal philosophies of India, Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory.
He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, 'Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.' His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other.
He theorized that Gurutva (Hindi/Sanskrit for Gravity) was responsible for the falling of objects on the Earth.
KARMA KARMA SAADHYAM NA VIDYATHE [ VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 1.1.11]
KARMA - Energy NA-Not SADHYAM- Possible
An energy cannot change into another energy without the intervention of work.
Now we shall move into discussing Potential and Kinetic energy by way of VAISHEHSIKA SUTRAS. The following two sutras may sound abstract but their meaning when put together makes sense.They explain the concept with the help of an example.
ATMA SAMYOGA PRAYATNABHYAM HASTHE KARMA
Atma- individual ; Prayatnam-effort ; karma - energy ; Hastha- Hand
Link with an individual and his efforts, Produces energy.
THATHA HASTHA SAMYOGAATH MUSAALE KARMA
Work done by hand transfers karma into the body lifted by it.
When we combine the above sutras, we infer that,
" When hand lifts a body, although work is done by the hand, yet, the body develops potential energy.this illustrates that work done by one object on another can produce energy in the object "
ABHIGAATAJE MUSALADOU KARMANI VYAKTHIREKAATH AKAARANAM HASTHA SAMYOGA: [VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.3]
MUSALA-Pulverizer ; Akaaranam- not the reason ; Hastha- hand
The pulverizer hits the base, and rebounds. This is a collision‟ or abhighata”. The energy generated in the pulverizor on account of the „collision‟ is not caused due to contact with hand.
THATHA AATMA SAMYOGO HASTA KARMANI [VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.4]
And because of same reasons, the link with self is not the cause of (generation of) energy in the hand (following the collision).
RISHI describes a perfectly elastic collision or recoil of polverizer with the base. The pulverizer rebounds while the hand is holding it passively. Maharishi kanada is aware that when the pulverizer hits the base, this action has an equal and opposite reaction. This becomes clear from the following sutras which imply that the pulverizer rises to its original height without any effort by holding hand
ABHIGHATHATH MUSALA SAMYOGAATH HASTHE KARMA [VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.5]
the two causes of generation of energy is the collision of body (pulorizer) with the base and hands contact with the body.
ATHMA KARMA HASTA SAMYOGAATH CHA [VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.6]
in this way, energy generated can be due to the hands connection with the object or due to its link with itself.
Thus put together :
Something cannot have movement by its own. The force needs to be exerted on it from outside. The hand in this example, gets motion and thereby energy by different agents external to hand; either by the sefl i.e. force applied by the individual or by force applied on it by rebounding pulverizor.
As we are familiar with this background, now see KANADA,who lived in the BCs give us what is called Newton's Second law known today !!!
This sutra that we are going to see as the first, we have already discussed, but we will just have a glance at it, because the law proposed by kanada has this as a base.
NODANA VISHESHA ABHAVAATH, NA URDHVAM NA THRAYYAG GAMANAM
The projectile cannot move upwards or obliquely unless there is an impulse created.
PRAYATNA VISHESHAAT NODANA VISHESHA: [ VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.9]
Prayatna - EFFORT ; NODANA VISHESHA: - Change in momentum
A particular prayatna ( FORCE X TIME ) Produces a Particular NODAN ( Change of momentum). !!!!!
Prayatna means the effort of an individual.Total effort is force applied multiplied by the time.Kanada proposes that there is a fixed proportion between prayatna and nodana.
NODANA VISHESHAATH UDAASANA VISHESHA: [VAISHESHIKA SUTRA 5.1.10]
nodana- Impulse (momentum) ; Udaasana- Rise
A Particular momentum produces a particular rise of the projectile.
This can be interpreted with the physics as we know today as ;
if the body is at rest in the beginning, the momentum attained by it is equal to the nodana (or impulse) applied to it. For a body of given mass, a particular momentum produces a particular velocity. A particular initial velocity produces a particular maximum height attained by the projectile. It can be said thus that a particular impulse produces a particular height in a given projectile
So that explains the Second law of newton proposed by KANADA.we have already seen the third law in our Previous note and Newton's First law in the first note